Fiscal Foundations has branch offices in Minneapolis/St Paul and Denton, TX. Our long term business plan includes establishing branches in major metropolitan areas around the country. We hope to attract professional bookkeepers/accountants and QuickBooks ProAdvisors such as yourself (I checked out your website too!) to join us when the time is right. In 2012, we will be interviewing for our Denton TX Branch, managed by Advanced Certified QuickBooks ProAdvisor, Jim Schander. If you’re interested in relocating to the Dallas/Ft Worth area and wish to be considered, feel free to contact us at

In reality, a lot of it is about making judgment calls and understanding how those decisions will ultimately impact financial statements. Experts seem to agree that a lack of confidence in math shouldn’t stop you from pursuing an accounting degree if you have good basic skills and a willingness to review and solidify those skills. Accounting is not simply crunching numbers, but being able to use the numbers to help individuals and companies achieve their financial goals that matters the most. If you have an interest in pursuing accounting, knowing what types of math skills you will need for an accounting degree is important, but gaining a broader view of an accountant’s job overall will truly help you decide whether to enter the field. Accounting requires certain hard skills, such as mathematics and expertise with accounting software.


Types of Accounting

For example, a payment made for a sale previously made on credit would result in an increase in the cash account and a decrease in Accounts Receivable (money owed to the business by customers who have purchased items on credit but not yet paid). These entries would be made for the same amount (the amount of the sale). Just as managerial accounting helps businesses make decisions about management, cost accounting helps businesses make decisions about costing. Essentially, cost accounting considers all of the costs related to producing a product. Analysts, managers, business owners and accountants use this information to determine what their products should cost.

At the end of the accounting period, each account is totaled up to create a trial balance. Accountants make two or more entries for each transaction recorded by the business. These can be thought of as an increase in one or more accounts and an identical decrease in one or more other accounts.

Cost Accounting

This is the basic formula on which double-entry bookkeeping is based. Even if you have not had any training, I believe you can understand these principles. If you were to determine what your business was worth if you wanted to sell it, you would look at what the business owns that is of value (Assets), you would subtract your debt (Liabilities), and the result would represent your net worth (Equity). By the mid-1800s, the industrial revolution in Britain was well underway and London was the financial centre of the world. With the growth of the limited liability company and large-scale manufacturing and logistics, demand surged for more technically proficient accountants capable of handling the growingly complex world of global transactions.

The petition was signed by 49 Glaswegian accountants, and it argued that the accounting profession had long existed in Scotland as a distinct profession of great respectability and that the small number of practitioners had been rapidly increasing. The ethical oath is the most important moral covenant of professionals. The purpose of this research is to develop an ethical oath for Iranian accountants.

Financial History: The Evolution of Accounting

There’s also a LOT of information, so if you’re just memorizing journal entries instead of understanding the broader transactions, you’re gonna have a hard time. Volume of information and a lack of understanding of what accountants actually do. Most people just think accounting is keeping track of cash (or something similar).

How Accounting Works

Its standards are based on double-entry retained earnings, a method in which every accounting transaction is entered as both a debit and credit in two separate general ledger accounts that will roll up into the balance sheet and income statement. Much of what you will end up studying may depend on the kind of accounting job you pursue.

  • Bookkeepers generally keep records of sales and record them in the books directly.
  • They do the day-to-day work of making sure every dollar the business makes and spends gets recorded.
  • However, the skills and responsibilities required of each are somewhat different.

The Enron scandals in 2001 shook the industry, for example. Arthur Andersen, one of the world’s largest accounting firms at the time, went out of business. Subsequently, under the newly introduced Sarbanes-Oxley Act, accountants now face harsher restrictions on their consulting engagements. Yet ironically, since Enron and the financial crisis in 2008, accountants have been greatly in demand, as corporate regulations have increased and more expertise is required to fulfil reporting requirements. The balance records what a company owns, is owed, and owes at a moment in time, usually the end of the accounting year, quarter, or month.


The income statement, on the other hand, shows the business’s expenditures and earnings during that whole period. So, the balance sheet would show the result of what happened on the income statement (the changes in accounts receivable, cash, debt, etc. from operations). Comparability requires accountants to conform to certain standards, such as the generally accepted What is bookkeeping principles (GAAP), to ensure that one company’s financial reports can be easily compared to another company’s financial reports.

In cost accounting, money is cast as an economic factor in production, whereas in financial accounting, money is considered to be a measure of a company’s economic performance. I didn’t think it was extremely hard, but I won’t lie, I do appreciate when I say I studied accounting and people act shocked and like I must be a genius. Honestly, I think my intro class was probably the most difficult (aside from consolidations) because accounting is a different way of thinking than most people are used to and it takes time to adjust. Once you’ve got an intuitive feel for how transactions affect a company, it’s not too bad.


A thorough knowledge of relevant laws and regulations is necessary for many positions. Accountants must be detail oriented, have strong analytical skills, and a facility with computer software such as spreadsheet programs to organize and report financial data. Accountants conduct audits to determine if client organizations ledger account or their own employer is following established legal practices and company policies for financial transactions and record keeping. They prepare reports with their findings and recommend remedies to resolve problems and reduce the risk of law suits and financial losses due to staff errors or criminal activity.

In general, you will likely find an ability to follow specific accounting procedures and to understand tax law important. You may need to study certain kinds of skills and procedures, such as those needed to become a financial auditor or to handle a company’s payroll. Your best guide for knowing which of your skills to emphasize is the specific description of the job to which you are applying. If the description mentions specific “Preferred Skills,” you need to echo these in your resume. The 21st century has seen some dubious actions by accountants causing large-scale scandals.

Financial statements reflect the current financial health of the business and its financial performance over the last accounting period. The financial statements are created from the information contained within the general ledger.

What are the basics of accounting?

Accounting is the process of recording financial transactions pertaining to a business. The accounting process includes summarizing, analyzing, and reporting these transactions to oversight agencies, regulators, and tax collection entities.

However, the skills and responsibilities required of each are somewhat different. Bookkeepers generally keep records of sales and record them in the books directly. They do the day-to-day work of making sure every dollar the business makes and spends gets recorded.

Can I teach myself accounting?

Some of the basic accounting terms that you will learn include revenues, expenses, assets, liabilities, income statement, balance sheet, and statement of cash flows. You will become familiar with accounting debits and credits as we show you how to record transactions.

History of Accounting

The job outlook for accountants is strong, and the earnings are well above the median. Accounting refers to managing or inspecting someone’s financial records. There are many jobs that involve accounting, including accountant, auditor, comptroller, bookkeeper, accounting clerk, and more. In most cases, accountants use generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) when preparing financial statements in the United States. GAAP is a set of standards and principles designed to improve the comparability and consistency of financial reporting across industries.